Theory of Self Efficacy Using Internal & External Criticism Evaluation Critique



Theory of Self Efficacy Using Internal & External Criticism Evaluation Critique


Using the criteria presented in week 2, critique the theory of Self-Efficacy using the internal and external criticism evaluation process. Week 2-Making judgement as to whether a theory could be adapted for use in research is very important. Describe the internal and external criticism that is used to evaluate middle-range theories.


The Criticism and Influences of Self-Efficacy Theoryby Seoryeon Kim – Sunday, June 5, 2022, 10:55 PMNumber of replies: 1This assignment provides this writer with an opportunity to analyze the historical background of self-efficacy and the use of the self-efficacy theory in nursing practice in order to critically analyze the philosophical underpinnings of nursing theories and to critique nursing’s conceptual models, grand theories, and mid-range theories.In the field of nursing, it is important for an individual to be able to serve as a competent nursing professional in order to help his/her patient improve in a positive progress as comprehensively as possible during the process of recovery. What sets nursing professionals aside from physician colleagues, strictly spoken from a personal perspective, is this holistic approach as a nursing professional to provide a comprehensive supervision of care for patients not only including the actual treatment of the medical conditions to “simply fix the broken part(s),” but also other influential aspects of the recovery process such as psychiatric, psychological, social, economic, and personal domains of impacts that may as critically affect the healing process. When you approach patient care as an advanced practice provider within the field of nursing, all those influences may end up carrying even more weight in the process of determining and providing the most optimal nursing practice to the patients. One of the “domains” of which nurse practitioners should be well aware is the theory of Self-Efficacy and how it may contribute to the progress of recovery during patient care. Self-Efficacy was first discussed by Prof. Bandura from Stanford University in in the 1970’s which is described in simple terms to be one’s belief in his/her ability to be successful in a particular situation (Bandura, 1977). This has provided an interesting yet critical perspective for many years to come for practitioners across the U.S. healthcare system including nurses to be cognizant of as part of a comprehensive overview of care. The theory emphasizes four parts impacting Self-Efficacy: Mastery Experiences, Vicarious Experiences, Social Persuasion, and Emotional/Physiological States (Bandura, 1977). Although the Mastery experiences play the most influential impact to one’s Self-Efficacy, the theory bring up an essential factor that all four truly play a major role in a comprehensive manner. For such an impactful theory, it shall be appropriate to review the theory via external and internal criticism. As Adelman & Verkuyten (2020) referenced the Sutton et al (2006), external criticism may be viewed as an attack on the targeted outgroup while internal criticism may be appreciated as caring about one’s group. This may be true however purpose of such types of review would be to find the theory legitimate for other practitioners and researchers to utilize it to advance the field in which each specialist participates – nursing for this occasion. External criticism, focused on validating the genuineness, can be easily authenticated with the inaugural author’s awards and credentials. As a Sandford professor with a lifetime career dedicated in education before passing, no secondary or malignant intentions shall be found. Indeed, the theory of Self-Efficacy, along with many of other theories he established, provided an essential aspect to be utilized for nursing professionals to advance their competency and knowledge in patient care.Internal criticism, intended to investigate the actual meaning and trustworthiness of the contents, gives a good opportunity to review the reliability of the theory. Bandura (1977) provided a thorough and well-analyzed paper emphasizing multi-dimensional perspectives including over 87 references upon initial publication, reflecting on the originality of the paper. Reflecting the originality of the content, although each one may have a different share of impact it is truly all 4 parts of the theory that make up the main influences to one’s Self-Efficacy. As an example, one recent peer-reviewed journal papers conducted a randomized-controlled trial to improve breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding rate for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by formulating perinatal individualized interventions based on self-efficacy theory (You et al, 2020). It showed that education on perinatal individualized breastfeeding according to the theory of Self-Efficacy indeed show positive effects on breastfeeding self-efficacy and the rate of women with GDM – a perfect example of middle-range theory dedicated for women with GDM on breastfeeding benefited by the existence of the theory on Self-Efficacy. Without the foundation of authenticity and reliability on the Self-Efficacy Theory built by researchers like Prof. Bandura, it would not have been possible for nursing professionals to have been able to advance the profession to improve patient care as well as nursing research at various levels such including middle-range and grand theories.References:Bandura, Albert (1977), Social Learning Theory Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-hal.Bandura, A (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review. 84 (2): 191–215. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.Adelman, L., & Verkuyten, M. (2020). Rules of engagement: Reactions to internal and external criticism in public debate. The British journal of social psychology, 59(2), 405–424., H., Lei, A., Xiang, J., Wang, Y., Luo, B., & Hu, J. (2020). Effects of breastfeeding education based on the self-efficacy theory on women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A CONSORT-compliant randomized controlled trial. Medicine, 99(16), e19643.

Self-efficacy theory ,internal and external Lazaro Machado Sanchez – Monday, June 6, 2022, 11:39 AMNumber of replies: 0Critique Nursing’s conceptual models, Grand Theories and Middle range theories, is the student learning outcomes that best fit to the narrative of this essay as part of my week 5 class discussion. Self-Efficacy theory of motivation is a Middle range theory, was developed by the Canadian-American Psychologist Albert Bandura in 1997 a professor of the Stanford University ,born in 1925 who bring the light about this particular but with the time was revised and some other new concepts added, it was renamed as “The Social cognitive Theory”, Self-Efficacy refers to a person’s belief in his/her abilities, skills, and capabilities to execute behaviors needed to help him/her to solve a problem and achieve the best outcomes. been more specific is when an individual uses all their personal and other reachable resources to overcome the situations affecting their life. Self-efficacy can be the root for well-being, motivation, and personal accomplishment. Kathy Kolbe thinks that believing in one’s own abilities can be vital in measuring cognitive strength and believes that self-efficacy involves determination and perseverance (Kolbe,2009). Other authors suggested that Self-efficacy theory of motivation perceived capabilities for learning or performing actions at designated levels is a way to explain motivation because predicts achievement and performance. (Schunk,2009). 4 factors influence the person’s self-efficacy and in turn your performance of task as Bandura initially considered, Mastery experiences or performance outcomes, Verbal persuasion, Vicarious experience and physiological feedback, most recent James Maddux suggested the fifth factors, Imaginal experiences, or visualization (Garrido,2020). Performance outcomes refers to the previous experience people has about performed certain task, is the experience was succeeded most probably in the future the person feels most confident doing the same or similar task, for Bandura this is the most influential source of Self efficacy information, as succeed make the Self efficacy strongest, failures will decrease it and make the person less confident (Bandura,1997). Verbal persuasion influenced self-efficacy by encouraging or discouraging individual’s performance, Vicarious experience is when compare self-competence with other similar people competence, watch another person perform and then establishing a performing comparison and finally Physiological feedback is how the emotions, sensations and experiences form their body can influence their beliefs of efficacy. All these factors are to be considered when Self efficacy theory of motivation is used. As part of the internal criticism is valid said that the theory is clear in their concepts and is not necessary be a psychology to understanding and use, it is developed in a logical way and the definition of the main concepts are explained and easily understood for most of the people to be able to implement and interpret, is a middle range theory because has fewer concepts and can be generalized for diverse backgrounds. When External criticism is established, the theory is simple and does not need a complex explanation, useful in most of the nursing’s setting helping a lot in changing people’s attitudes to achieving goals in their health recovery, the theory is used in nursing practice but also in the research, is a narrow and task specific, it can be use in several setting not only in nursing. It is important to mention that some authors find some limitations, because it is important considering the patient’s environment and how sometimes having high self-efficacy has disadvantages because person is over confidence do not make the necessary effort to achieve the goal and reduce their performance, also some other factors besides self-efficacy are to be consider such as values and domain identification. Kolbe, Kathy (2009) “Self-efficacy results from exercising control over personal conative strengths”, Wisdom of the ages. Doi: Schunk & Pajares, (2009,) p35, based on Bandura ,1997. Lopez-Garrido, G (2020, Aug09). Self-efficacy. Simply Bandura, A. (1997b). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.