BCJ582 Final Exam 100% Correct Answers

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BCJ582 Final Exam 100% Correct Answers




  1. Relapse prevention programs for sex offenders are designed to ______.


  1. incapacitate offenders so that they are unable to reoffend


  1. provide work opportunities so that offenders will be too busy to reoffend


  1. prevent reoffending through chemical castration


  1. teach offenders ways to avoid high-risk situations, or cope with high risk situations that cannot be avoided so that reoffending will be less likely


  1. Personality characteristics of severely antisocial offenders present challenges for which component of treatment?


  1. administering pharmaceutical treatment


  1. creating a therapeutic alliance


  1. providing skills training


  1. encouraging present centered thinking


  1. Issues of formation of trusting relationships, delays of gratification, separation and individuation, and “working through” are primarily examples of which family therapy model?


  1. communications


  1. psychodynamic


  1. structural


  1. social learning


  1. _________ introduces positive reinforcements, in which deviant fantasies are replaced with non-deviant fantasies.


  1. Aversive therapy


  1. Aversive reinforcement strategies


  1. Masturbatory conditioning


  1. Systematic role reinforcement conditioning


  1. The DSM-5 indicates that prevalence rates of APD are between _______ to _______ of the general







  1. 0.2%; 3.3%


  1. 1.2%; 5.5%


  1. 10.2%; 15.6%


  1. 20.2%; 25.3%


  1. Outward Bound and Youth Wilderness Programs offer youth offenders opportunities to engage in socially acceptable group activities. Which of the following is NOT an opportunity provided by these programs?


  1. money management


  1. physical conditioning


  1. team training


  1. technical training


  1. Classification subgrouping assists the correctional program in which of the following?


  1. predictions about future behavior


  1. identifying needs


  1. planning treatment


  1. all of the above


  1. _________ is a behavioral strategy in which the client and the counselor agree on what behaviors will be expected from the client and what, in turn, the counselor will provide for the client as well as what other outcomes might occur.


  1. Negative reinforcement


  1. Positive reinforcement


  1. Contingency or behavioral contracting


  1. Token economy


  1. Group counseling is a preferred mode of providing offender treatment because ______.


  1. groups provide the offender with a wealth of new information gathered from interactions with other individuals


  1. offenders challenge each other with feedback


  1. peer group pressure and influence are inherently therapeutic


  1. all of the above





  1. According to research based on the CPAI-2000, a shortcoming found in at least 50 percent of all programs was ______.


  1. client preservice assessment


  1. staff characteristics


  1. implementation


  1. all of the above


  1. Seeking Safety is a gender-responsive, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy treatment program that specifically targets women who suffer from a dual diagnosis of ______.


  1. substance abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder


  1. substance abuse and manic depression


  1. substance abuse and bipolar disorder


  1. substance abuse and schizophrenia


  1. Which of the following does NOT constitute a functional treatment component for delinquents?


  1. fully-trained staff


  1. appropriate recreational activities


  1. strengthening their conscience by helping them to ignore their guilt feelings


  1. exploitation of live events


  1. Correctional staff should assign _______ to half-way houses once released from prison.


  1. low-risk offenders


  1. medium-risk offenders


  1. high-risk offenders


  1. none of the above


  1. It is hoped clients will see goal behaviors modeled outside of treatment groups, but treatment efforts are often discouraged when ______.


  1. parents and family members model aggressive behaviors


  1. institutional staff model antisocial behaviors


  1. peers encourage delinquents to revisit criminal behavior


  1. all of the above


  1. Forever Free is a gender-responsive cognitive-behavioral program which addresses ______.






  1. antisocial attitudes


  1. employment and financial independence


  1. anger management


  1. educational attainments


  1. Motivational Interviewing is an approach that can be used by correctional counselors to _________.


  1. enhance an offender’s intrinsic motivation to change


  1. explore and resolve an offender’s ambivalence about change


  1. elicit change talk from an offender


  1. all of the above


  1. Which of the following is TRUE of major depressive disorder?


  1. those with this disorder experience a depressed mood almost every day


  1. it is equally common in men and women


  1. it is not a common inmate experience


  1. it tends to be of low intensity


  1. The statistical technique of meta-analysis ______.


  1. corrects methodological problems of individual studies


  1. allows the summarizing of results across studies


  1. creates a statistic to gauge effectiveness of program types


  1. all of the above


  1. In the curriculum titled Problem Solving, participants are instructed on “the conflict cycle,” which helps them understand how ______.


  1. to make the right choice of what to do


  1. to define the problem and determine resolution


  1. their thinking can lead to consequences


  1. to differentiate facts from opinions


  1. Why is validity regarding classification systems an ethical consideration?


  1. Offenders can be profoundly affected by their correctional classification.


  1. Risk assessments sometimes determine early prison release.






  1. Prison classification systems determine whether an inmate will be placed in a minimum-custody facility or in a medium- or maximum-custody facility.


  1. d. all of the above


  1. All of the following are recommended non-verbal expressions of approval of a client’s statement or behavior EXCEPT:


  1. eye contact


  1. smiling


  1. a sharing of experiences


  1. hugging


  1. Burns states that by dwelling on negative details and leaving out the positive aspects, ______




  1. disqualifying


  1. magnification


  1. mental filtering


  1. catastrophizing


  1. The counselor’s praise of an inmate’s acquisition of a socially appropriate behavior is called ______.


  1. vicarious reinforcement


  1. external reinforcement


  1. self-reinforcement


  1. covert modeling reinforcement


  1. A major ethical issue is seen in the counselor’s divided loyalties between ______.


  1. practical concerns and ideals


  1. institution and offender


  1. theoretical concepts and practice


  1. all of the above


  1. ______, developed by Maxwell Jones, was initially designed to assist returning prisoners of war after World War II.


  1. Human potential seminars


  1. Gestalt group therapy


  1. Psychodrama





  1. Milieu therapy


  1. Which of the following is a type of symptom of dysfunctional self-regulation according to Ward and Hudson (2000)?


  1. disinhibition, or loss of control over emotions/behavior


  1. depressive symptoms


  1. suicidality


  1. identity disturbance, or persistently unstable self-image or sense of self


  1. What are the implications of treating children according to psychoanalytic therapy?


  1. staff should provide treatment in a loving and hygienic environment


  1. focus on ego support through recreational activities


  1. staff should exploit live events in day-to-day living


  1. all of the above


  1. The most successful substance abuse interventions are ______.


  1. educational approaches


  1. psychotherapy approaches


  1. cognitive-behavioral approaches


  1. confrontational approaches


  1. Agencies could incur serious problems with treatment integrity if they ______.


  1. omit adequate training


  1. develop treatment manuals


  1. implement the program as it was designed


  1. maintain good relationships with the participants


  1. All of the following are ways in which helping professionals can be sensitized to ethnic variations




  1. suggesting ways in which the operating procedures of the criminal justice system come into conflict with the values and lifestyles of people from specific ethnic backgrounds


  1. clarifying the likely sources of conflict between service providers and clients from specific ethnic groups


  1. enrolling in a foreign language program to communicate better with a specific ethnic group


  1. providing greater understanding of the specific needs of the people from specific backgrounds





  1. All of the following are examples of problematic staff characteristics identified by the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory EXCEPT:


  1. staff have large gaps of knowledge regarding criminological theories of criminal behavior


  1. staff lack basic concepts of classical and operant conditioning


  1. staff were authoritarian and often displayed favoritism


  1. staff were hired based on characteristics instead of clinical experience and training


  1. How do women often become involved in substance use?


  1. through family members


  1. through friends


  1. through significant others


  1. all of the above


  1. The treatment implications of the risk principle include ______.


  1. identifying high-, medium-, and low-risk offenders


  1. directing intensive treatment efforts to high- and medium-risk offenders


  1. refraining from assigning low-risk offenders to intensive interventions


  1. all of the above


  1. For a person to be considered intellectually disabled, his or her IQ score must be about ______ or below AND be accompanied by deficits in adaptive behavior.


  1. 100


  1. 85


  1. 70


  1. 50


  1. When a behavioral therapist creates a situation for a client in which aversive elements are woven into a story involving a desired object, it is known as ______.


  1. mini-phobia


  1. negative reinforcement


  1. covert sensitization


  1. systematic desensitization


  1. Treatment of psychopathy can be conducted in a group setting under all of the following conditions







  1. A proportion of the participants must be non-psychopathic.


  1. Entry to the group must be open.


  1. The group must contain an equal amount of males and females.


  1. Individuals who are further along in the stages of change must serve as learning models for those in earlier stages.


  1. Which of the following is a criticism of person-centered therapy?


  1. Offenders could misinterpret paraphrasing as tacit approval for their behavior.


  1. The counselor may appear to be reinforcing inappropriate behavior.


  1. Therapy does not address or confront the offender’s behavior.


  1. all of the above


  1. Transfer training ______.


  1. helps clients to generalize newly learned behaviors outside of the treatment setting


  1. includes role-playing in a variety of situations


  1. may involve overlearning material


  1. all of the above


  1. ______ focuses on stress management, distress acceptance, and emotional control.


  1. Aversive therapy


  1. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy


  1. Social skills training


  1. Psychoanalytic therapy


  1. _________ is a therapeutic intervention that assists offenders’ ability to understand the feelings of others and challenges offenders’ cognitive distortions.


  1. Empathy training


  1. Role-playing


  1. Covert desensitization


  1. Aversion therapy


  1. Intervention for psychopathic sex offenders should also include which type of strategy?


  1. interpersonal-therapy


  1. relapse prevention





  1. socialization


  1. incapacitation


  1. In treating an offender who requires medication to control a mental disorder, which of the following professionals would be legally qualified to administer such a medication?


  1. psychologist


  1. clinical social worker


  1. psychiatrist


  1. psychometricist


  1. What are the implications when staff do not conduct a thorough review of the literature and its effectiveness before implementing a proposed program?


  1. they may repeat the mistakes of others


  1. they may be chasing the latest panacea


  1. they may be following a hunch


  1. all of the above


  1. The second level of communication, which can convey as much information as the verbal content of conversation, is known as ______.


  1. nonverbal language


  1. intracommunication


  1. metacommunication


  1. neocommunication


  1. What can the counselor do to avoid extended debates with offenders?


  1. point out the thinking errors that led to the offenders’ consequences


  1. terminate the counseling session for the time being


  1. point out the self-defeating nature of the offenders’ behavior


  1. all of the above


  1. Freud, Rogers, and others discouraged the use of family therapy because ______.


  1. they were afraid that family secrets might be discussed


  1. they saw such a move as contaminating the client-therapist relationship


  1. longitudinal studies convinced them that family therapy was ineffective






  1. international governing bodies refused to fund research on family studies


  1. Most people who commit suicide ______.


  1. never give any warning of what they plan to do


  1. communicate their intent to a correctional counselor, but not to other inmates or family members


  1. communicate their intent to other inmates or family members, either directly or indirectly


  1. do so impulsively, with no time to give any warning


  1. Penile plethysmography ______.


  1. is controversial because its use involves the presentation of deviant stimuli


  1. is one of the most reliable ways to determine whether a person is a sexual offender


  1. measures a person’s arousal patterns by recording brain wave activity while the person sleeps


  1. all of the above


  1. The ______ model of substance abuse views alcoholism as a result of personal choice.


  1. moral


  1. temperance


  1. educational


  1. disease


  1. _________ is the assessment tool that is used most frequently.


  1. Psychopathy Checklist–Revised


  1. Inventory of Psychopathic Traits


  1. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders


  1. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire


  1. When counseling offenders in a group setting, it is important to know that they ______.


  1. are all criminals


  1. are all motivated to change


  1. are often not motivated to change


  1. love the warden


  1. Major depressive disorder differs from dysthymia in that ______.


  1. intermittent normal moods may last a few days or weeks in major depression, but not in dysthymia





  1. major depressive disorder must include sexual dysfunction


  1. major depressive disorder requires more symptoms and they are present for a longer duration than in dysthymia


  1. dysthymia is of a longer duration than major depressive disorder


  1. The primary goal of Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Therapy is to ______.


  1. challenge and confront the client’s incorrect and maladaptive beliefs


  1. identify maladaptive schemas or patterns of cognitive distortion that may be resulting in unhappiness and/or depression


  1. expose clients to stress under controlled conditions so that they can gain more effective ways of coping


  1. learn a functional approach to social problem solving


  1. The defense mechanism of finding an acceptable reason for doing something unacceptable is known as ______.


  1. rationalization


  1. regression


  1. denial


  1. repression


  1. In ______, one negative event is seen as a never-ending pattern of defeat.


  1. all-or-nothing thinking


  1. overgeneralization


  1. magnification


  1. shoulding


  1. The function of the _________ is to balance the wishes of the _________, the social demands of


_________, and the requirements of one’s external environment.


  1. superego; id; ego


  1. ego; id; superego


  1. id; ego; superego


  1. id; superego; ego


  1. According to the text, the major difference in family therapy models is primarily in their ______.


  1. dislike of each other





  1. accusations that the other has poorly constructed longitudinal studies


  1. treatment focus, or the type of family problem that is addressed in therapy d. none of the above


  1. The process by which family members distort the experiences of other members by denial or relabeling is known as ______.


  1. metacommunication


  1. mystification


  1. the double bind


  1. therapeutic paradox


  1. The use of shock treatment is MOST closely associated with which of the following treatments?


  1. covert sensitization


  1. aversive imagery


  1. aversion therapy


  1. systematic reinforcement therapy


  1. Which of the following is an example of a negative schizophrenic symptom?


  1. hallucinations, both visual and auditory


  1. emotional turmoil resulting from internal confusion


  1. emotional unresponsiveness


  1. delusions or thought disorders


  1. Gender-responsive practices include ______.


  1. gender-informed risk/needs assessments


  1. female-specific programming


  1. trauma-informed policies, supervision, and treatment


  1. all of the above


  1. Which of the following statements is NOT a technique used by the radical behavioral approach to substance abuse treatment?


  1. free association


  1. stimuli manipulation


  1. community reinforcement





  1. gaining alternative sources of pleasure


  1. Which of the following is NOT a facet of the four-factor model of psychopathy?


  1. relational


  1. affective


  1. lifestyle


  1. antisocial


  1. Domains on the Gender Informed Practices Assessment include ______.


  1. leadership and philosophy


  1. staffing and training


  1. assessment and classification


  1. all of the above


  1. In the final stage of Postconventional Reasoning ______.


  1. decisions are predicated on the desire to avoid punishment


  1. decisions reflect a desire to maintain social institutions


  1. ethical principles and respect for others are used to generate moral decisions


  1. moral reasoning reflects an application of the “Golden Rule”


  1. Many counselors are reluctant to build personal involvement with offenders because they ______.


  1. have very little time to do so due to their heavy caseloads


  1. are aware that personal involvement with offenders is unethical


  1. fear manipulation and exploitation from the offenders


  1. fear becoming overly emotionally involved with the offenders


  1. Cognitive skills programs that include Living Skills have provided offenders with a foundation for later modules such as ______.


  1. community reintegration


  1. parenting skills


  1. managing their finances


  1. all of the above


  1. Which group of offenders may not respond well to a system of rewards and punishments?






  1. persons with psychopathic personality traits


  1. children diagnosed with conduct disorder


  1. adults diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder
  2. all of the above


  1. The ______ maintains that needs related to future offending should receive high priority as we match offenders to programs.


  1. risk principle


  1. needs principle


  1. responsivity principle


  1. gender-responsive principle


  1. Which of the following is not a component to managing severely antisocial offenders within correctional institutions?


  1. diagnosis


  1. solitary confinement


  1. supervision


  1. treatment


  1. The American Correctional Association recommends supplementing needs assessments with




  1. presentence investigations


  1. medical reports


  1. psychological evaluations


  1. all of the above


  1. Skill Streaming is a component of a treatment package called ______.


  1. Attribution Replacement Training


  1. Aggression Replacement Training


  1. Anger Replacement Training


  1. Antisocial Replacement Training


  1. Which of the following variables determines how much influence a model will have?


  1. the functional value of the behaviors observed






  1. the observer’s perceptual set toward the model


  1. characteristics of the model, such as attractiveness d. all of the above


  1. Which of the following is NOT a new direction in the evolution of correctional classification and assessment?


  1. internal personality assessments


  1. gender-responsive correctional classification and assessment


  1. development of risk models for specific types of offenders


  1. seamless classification systems


  1. There are _________ major diagnostic classes in the DSM-5.


  1. 11


  1. 21


  1. 31


  1. 41


  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of psychological classification?


  1. Interpersonal Maturity Level (I-level)


  1. Salient Factor Score


  1. Adult Internal Management System (AIMS)


  1. Megargee MMPI-based typology


  1. Which of the following represents a major problem in the area of correction recreation?


  1. an increase in physical conflicts among inmates


  1. the inability of physically disabled offenders to participate


  1. the perception that the recreation specialist is no more than an activity coordinator


  1. the current debate about the effectiveness of recreation as treatment


  1. Which of the following is a domain of the six-dimensional model of psychopathy?


  1. attachment


  1. cognitive


  1. emotional






  1. all of the above


  1. Establishing a meaningful relationship with the offender ______.


  1. is important to establishing interpersonal boundaries


  1. is essential to successful counseling


  1. prevents the counselor from confronting the offender with the irresponsible decisions that led to his or her incarceration


  1. none of the above


  1. According to the ______ approach, substance abuse may be an attempt to “medicate” feelings of emptiness, rage, or depression (Wurmser, 1984).


  1. radical behavioral


  1. social learning


  1. cognitive-behavioral


  1. psychodynamic


  1. The primary focus of the institutional counselor known as the _________ is often to help inmates survive the stresses of prison life.


  1. probation officer


  1. parole officer


  1. case manager


  1. prison chaplain


  1. Collateral information can be enlightening to a counselor because ______.


  1. many offenders are masters of deceit


  1. collateral information can help present a comprehensive impression of the offender


  1. offenders tend to present themselves to their counselors in a favorable light


  1. all of the above


  1. Involving family members in the rehabilitation of offenders makes sense for which of the following reasons?


  1. it curbs family violence


  1. it assists an offender on his or her return to society


  1. both a and b


  1. none of the above





  1. Andrews and Bonta noted a number of common criminogenic needs. Which of the following is NOT a criminogenic need?


  1. antisocial associates


  1. antisocial values and attitudes


  1. antisocial personality characteristics


  1. family history of antisocial behavior


  1. Which of the following items is NOT examined when assessing a client’s sexual development?


  1. toilet training experiences


  1. adjustment to puberty


  1. history of sexual victimization


  1. attitudes toward sex


  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a family therapy model?


  1. psychoanalytic family therapy


  1. classical conditioned family therapy


  1. structural family therapy


  1. communications family therapy


  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of The Containment Approach?


  1. an underlying philosophy that places a priority to offender protection


  1. reliance upon multiagency coordination and cooperation


  1. an offender supervision model that emphasizes risk management individualized to the needs of each sex offender


  1. a consistent set of multi-agency policies and protocols


  1. Studies of the use of family therapy within the criminal justice system have noted that this treatment approach is used primarily with ______.


  1. stalkers and perverts


  1. military prisoners at Ft. Leavenworth


  1. alcoholics and other drug abusers


  1. child molesters and comatose inmates


  1. What special needs do female offenders often present to counselors?






  1. problems with their relationships with other offenders b. problems with their relationships with their children c. problems caused by physical abuse in their past
  2. both b and c


  1. Which of the following is a common pathway female offenders experience?


  1. the low self-esteem pathway


  1. the financial pathway


  1. the relational pathway


  1. the depression and anxiety pathway


  1. Client responsivity characteristics important to substance abuse include ______.


  1. motivation for change


  1. comorbidity


  1. ethnicity and gender


  1. all of the above


  1. Which characteristic is NOT descriptive of desirable curricula for female correctional populations?


  1. gender-responsive


  1. psychoanalytic


  1. cognitive-behavioral


  1. based on the principles of effective treatment intervention


  1. All of the following are ways in which the modeling provided by others facilitates our own learning




  1. demonstrating how to perform a new behavior


  1. providing a social context for who to perform the behavior with


  1. prompting or showing us how to use the behavior at the appropriate times


  1. motivating us, or increasing our desire to use a new skill or behavior


  1. In a therapeutic relationship, a correctional counselor exhibits ______.


  1. congruence


  1. sympathy






  1. distant boundaries


  1. authoritarian power


  1. In Maletzky’s 1980 study using covert sensitization in the treatment of exhibitionists, _________


percent of the clients learned to eliminate all overt exhibitionist behaviors.


  1. 47


  1. 68


  1. 87


  1. 98


  1. Which of the following approaches to offender treatment are recommended by the principles of effective interventions?


  1. radical behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and social learning


  1. psychodynamic, operant conditioning, and family therapy


  1. Guided Group Interaction, nondirective phenomenological, and restitution


  1. self-help, object relations, and psychodrama


  1. In recent years, ______ have been viewed as the “gold standard” for determining whether or not a program is effective in reducing offender recidivism.


  1. systematic reviews


  1. quantitative analyses


  1. meta-analyses


  1. case studies


  1. All of the following are reasons why continuity of care is needed EXCEPT:


  1. when the offender has a chronic problem


  1. when the offender is not motivated to change


  1. when the offender is being “handed off” to a different agency


  1. when the offender begins a re-entry program


  1. Which of the following are clear advantages of the use of group counseling?


  1. Groups may be open or closed.


  1. Groups are more economical and provide input to inmates.


  1. Groups provide inmates with structured and unstructured experiences.






  1. d. all of the above


  1. Guided Group Interaction programs were initially designed for which of the following groups?


  1. delinquents


  1. adult offenders


  1. addict-run drug addiction groups


  1. all of the above