CJUS 750 Role and Significance of Developing Research Discussion
The significance and role of a purpose statement, research questions, and inter-relationship between the purpose statement and research questions are to develop an exploratory, explanatory, or mixed-methods approach to understanding, explaining, and or interpreting a social problem as it relates to criminal justice and social science (Developing Research Questions, n.d.; Formulating a Research Question, n.d.; Glesne, 2016; O’Leary, 2005; Steely Library NKU, 2014; Suny Empire State College, n.d.). According to Steely Library NKU, there can be bad research questions and there can be good research questions. They state that research questions are to be specific and “not too narrow” and “not too broad” (2:06–2:26). By specific, the presenter is referring to improving question accuracy to gather and identify better data to be evaluated in a study. The purpose of the research is to identify an academic gap that has not been widely covered in the academic community according to the presenter. Though the presenter describes relevant points, the part about “research papers are not to be philosophical” appears to be inaccurate as the acronym of Ph.D. is a philosophy doctorate and religion has historically been demonstrated to be used as an early governance system in many human societies (3:27–3:29). Critics will argue that religion is not scientifical but the reality is that historical documentation, physical evidence, and other discussions in open-discussion for secularist debates lack the candor to realize the secularism in itself is a religion known as Atheism which was created by a secret society in Switzerland notably in John Rae’s Contemporary Socialism (1884) to destroy traditional norms and Western societies within (Coughlin, 2021). The framework of research problems and research questions are to be critical at answering the how of a problem (Introduction to Your Study, n.d.). For example, a study recommended that qualitative analysis projects can be more efficient when gathering data sources by using clear guidance from credible sources and from people that have experience or knowledge in the subject (Chatfield, 2020). In another study involving social science qualitative research data archives, the authors find that research data need to be verified and replicated or reevaluated to be more reliable and accurate (Late & Kekäläinen, 2020).
Definitions and Biblical Perspective
O’Leary (2005) defines reliability as “concerned with internal consistency, or whether data/results collected, measured, or generated are the same under repeated trials” (p. 74). They define dependability as “accepts that reliability in studies of the social may not be possible, but attests those methods are systematic, well-documented and designed to account/control for subjectivities and bias” (p. 74). Validity is defined as having a concern with truth values or determining whether it is correct and relates to what is being explored while authenticity/credibility is defined as having the same concerns as validity, but it describes the structure of the experience/phenomenon according to the author. They define generalizability as findings or conclusions from a sample/group/setting that are directly applicable to a larger population or group while transferability is defined as findings or conclusions from a sample/group/setting are lessons learned from a larger population/setting/group. In Developing Research Questions, the presenter states that the purpose of a research question is to “form the methods and design of the investigation” (2:03–2:18). From a biblical perspective, developing both a philosophical and secular perspective or the law of nature’s God is like the concept of having a mixed-methods approach to understanding and interpreting social problems “And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever” (King James Bible, 1769/2021, Revelation 20:10).
Chatfield, S. L. (2020). Recommendations for secondary analysis of qualitative data. The Qualitative Report, 25(3), 833–842, 833A.
Coughlin, S. (2021). Critical race theory: The purest form of Marxism. https://unconstrainedanalytics.org/critical-race-theory-the-purest-form-of-marxism/
Developing research questions. (n.d.). https://canvas.liberty.edu/courses/84757/pages/watch-developing-research-questions?module_item_id=11856760
Formulating a research question. (n.d.). https://www2.ku.edu/~splat/coursepages/general/