GED 260 Criminology Unit 2 Examination Answers
1) The term “positivism” came from the writings of
- A) Franz Gall.
- B) Auguste Comte.
- C) Charles Darwin.
- D) Cesare Lombroso.
2) According to Arseneault and Trembley’s recent study of teenage boys in Canada, minor abnormalities in the shape of the __________ were associated with an increased risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems.
- A) teeth
- B) tongue
- C) ears
- D) All of the above
3) According to William Sheldon, __________ have the greatest likelihood of becoming criminal offenders.
- A) cyclothmorphs
- B) endomorphs
- C) ectomorphs
- D) mesomorphs
4) Research suggests that exposure to the color __________ can calm people who are feeling angry or agitated.
- A) purple
- B) pink
- C) blue
- D) brown
5) Which of the following variables may moderate the relationship between temperature and criminal behavior?
- A) Time of day
- B) Season of the year
- C) Day of the week
- D) All of the above
6) According to Goddard, a tendency toward __________ was inherited.
- A) criminality
- B) alcoholism
- C) feeblemindedness
- D) degeneracy
7) Which of the following is not a characteristic of an XYY male?
- A) Shorter than average height
- B) Overrepresented in prisons and mental hospitals
- C) Less than average intelligence
- D) Suffers from acne or other skin disorders
8) The work of __________ contributed to the development of the field of behavioral genetics.
- A) James Q. Wilson
- B) Freda Adler
- C) Sir Francis Galton
- D) Edward O. Wilson
9) According to sociobiologists, the violence and aggressiveness associated withterritoriality is often reserved for
- A) acquaintances.
- B) relatives.
- C) strangers.
- D) family members.
10) Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?
- A) There is no rational basis for applying findings from animal studies to humans.
- B) It fails to integrate biology into the paradigm.
- C) It does not properly depict basic human nature.
- D) It does not identify the importance of culture, social learning, and individualexperiences in shaping behavior.
11) James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein wrote
- A) Crime and Human Nature.
- B) Sisters in Crime.
- C) Sociobiology.
- D) Creating Born Criminals.
12) Which of the following is not one of the early signs or indicators of psychopathy?
- A) Cruelty to animals
- B) Teenage pregnancy
- C) Firesetting
- D) Bed-wetting
13) Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of antisocial personality disorder?
- A) Callous unconcern for the feelings of others
- B) Prone to blame others for the behavior that brought the patient into conflictwith society
- C) A low tolerance to frustration
- D) The inability to establish relationships
14) A possible psychogenetic cause of antisocial personality disorder is
- A) a separation from the mother during the first six months of life.
- B) a low state of arousal.
- C) a malfunction of some inhibitory mechanisms.
- D) none of the above
15) According to Eysenck, a(n) __________ is generally irrational, shy, moody,and emotional.
- A) schizophrenic
- B) extrovert
- C) neurotic
- D) psychotic
16) The concept of __________ holds that the human mind may choose to keepcertain aspects of itself out of consciousness.
- A) Thanatos
- B) displacement
- C) catharsis
- D) repression
17) Giving a good child a toy is an example of a
- A) positive punishment.
- B) positive reward.
- C) negative punishment.
- D) negative reward.
18) Under federal law, a criminal defendant found not guilty by reason of insanitymust have a psychological or psychiatric examination and a hearing heldwithin __________ days after the not guilty verdict.
- A) 80
- B) 40
- C) 10
- D) 20
19) __________ helps police investigators better understand people wanted forserious crimes.
- A) Psychological profiling
- B) Sublimation
- C) Deterrence
- D) Selective incapacitation
20) The concentric zone model was applied to the study of juvenile delinquencyby
- A) Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.
- B) Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay.
- C) W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki.
- D) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess.
21) Operation Padlock in New York City was based on the concept of
- A) criminology of place.
- B) strain theory.
- C) deviant subcultures.
- D) the ecological school.
22) Relative deprivation theory was proposed by
- A) Steven F. Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.
- B) Emile Durkheim.
- C) Robert Agnew.
- D) Robert K. Merton.
23) Neutralization theory is most closely associated with the work of
- A) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess.
- B) Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin.
- C) Gresham Sykes and David Matza.
- D) Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson.
24) According to James Clark, the black subculture of violence was created bygenerations of __________ violence.
- A) black-on-white
- B) white-on-black
- C) white-on-white
- D) black-on-black
25) According to differential opportunity theory, drug use predominates in the__________ delinquent subculture.
- A) criminal
- B) conflict
- C) deviant
- D) retreatist