**EDUC 6125 Ethical Implications of the Use of Data and Statistics**

Few people are surprised when politicians are accused of misusing data, but the misrepresentation of information is a fairly common occurrence in other settings as well. For example, teachers may be disheartened by the data coming from their school district’s presentations concerning student performance. Or a training manager may be taken by surprise when the funding is cut for a training program he believes is worthwhile. While the numbers or data may not be false, they may be presented in a way that creates a false impression.

For this Discussion, recall the examples from this week’s Learning Resources regarding how data can be misused or misinterpreted. Also reflect on the old adage: “Figures never lie, but all liars figure.” Then, bring to mind a situation or study in which numbers or statistics were used improperly, or come up with your own example of how this could be done. With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of a situation/study or hypothetical example in which data or statistics are presented in a way that either intentionally or unintentionally misleads the reader or listener.

Required Readings

Locke, L. F., Silverman, S. J., & Spirduso, W. W. (2009). Reading and understanding research (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Table 6.1, “Names of Common Statistical Procedures”

Table 6.2, “Purpose, Names, and Examples of Research Techniques Used in Quantitative Research”

Appendix B, “Statistics: A Beginner’s Guide”

Fink, A. (2020). Conducting research literature reviews: From the Internet to paper (5th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Chapter 3, “Searching and Screening: Methodological Quality (Part 2—Collection, Interventions, Analysis, Results, and Conclusion”

“Purpose of This Chapter”

“Data Collection and Data Sources: Methods and Measures”

“Reviewing Qualitative Research” (subsection of “Information Analysis: Statistical Methods in the Research Literature”)

All other sections are highly recommended, but not required.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social science research: Principles, methods, and practices. Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/oa_textbooks/3

Chapter 14: Quantitative Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 15: Quantitative Analysis: Inferential Statistics

Chapter 16: Research Ethics

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.). Lying with statistics [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

In this program, you will explore examples of how data/statistics and visual representation of data can be manipulated to misrepresent the findings of a research.

Optional Resources

Statistics How To. (2016). Misleading graphs: Real life examples. Retrieved from http://www.statisticshowto.com/misleading-graphs/

Statistics Canada (2013). Misinterpretation of statistics. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch6/mis…

Walden University. (2015). New to stats? An introduction to statistics and SPSS for Walden students. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/ASCtutors/statsc…

Walden University. (n.d.). Research resources: Research design & analysis. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/r…

Note: Focus on section, “Quantitative Research Design and Analysis”

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