Evidence Based Practice Project
Depression is one of the severe malfunctions among elderly individuals. In most cases, the malfunction of depression is not ascertained or treated in the elderly stage and therefore it deteriorates both the physical, social status and the psychological conditions of the elderly individuals. The PICO question underlying the topic under evaluation is; what is the prevalence of depression among elderly individuals and what are the risk factors that contribute to the malfunction of depression among elderly individuals. Statistical evaluation and analysis have depicted that the prevalence of the malfunction of the elderly individuals is 28.6 percent. Among the risk factors that increase the changes or the risk of depression among the elderly include; loneliness, impaired cognitive thinking, widowed and chronic illness or pain. It is anticipated that in the near future, the nurses will encounter challenges in working with elderly individuals and they are likely to deal with more elderly individuals in the future. For the elderly individuals who are aged 65 years and above, it has been found that 7 to 15 percent of such individuals have the malfunction of depression.Additionally, it has been ascertained that the rates of the hospitalized individuals and those who receive long-term care as a result of depression are 20 to 30 percent.
Summary For The Research Article
From the quantitative research under evaluation, it is imperative to depict that there are various factors that contribute to the malfunction of severity among elderly individuals. Among the ascertained factors include; chronic malfunctions, impaired cognitive thinking, chronic pain, widowed and loneliness. From the quantitative research study, it is depicted that depression is prevalent in 15 percent of the individuals who live at home and 30 percent for the individuals who reside at the houses. According to the quantitative study, the prevalence of 28.6 percent of the individuals suffers from severe depression. Therefore it can be depicted that half of the individuals who live in the houses suffer from a particular degree of depression. According to various studies explored on the aspect of depression, it was found out that the primary rationale that contributes to the depression among the elderly individuals is the isolation from the social group since the elderly individuals tend to isolate themselves and disengage themselves from the society. According to the quantitative study and research, it was postulated that there are various factors that are linked to the disorder of depression among the elderly. Among the physical diseases ascertained include; stroke, diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and rheumatism. The most significant risk factors that are linked to the condition of depression is loneliness.
Drawing illustrations from a particular study, it was found out that elderly individuals who have established social relationships with the neighbors and friends are less likely to be depressed when compared to the individuals who have not established effective relationships with the friends and the neighbors(Kabátová, Uríčkov, and Botíková, 2014).The quantitative study also depicted that marital relationships are associated or linked to the aspect or malfunction of depression since the widowed individuals are more likely to suffer from depression as compared to the other individuals. The quantitative study is of significance in addressing the PICO question under evaluation.Ideally, this is because the quantitative study explores the prevalence of depression among elderly individuals and the risk factors that can increase the risk of depression among elderly individuals. The study depicted that loneliness; widowed, chronic pain and illness are among the risk factors that contribute to depression among elderly individuals.
Reliability is used to denote the extent or degree at which an evaluation tool results in consistent results (Gaete et al., 2018). There are various types of reliabilities. These include; test-retest reliability, parallel form reliability, inter later reliability and internal consistency reliability. The type of reliability which is depicted in the quantitative research article under evaluation is the internal consistency reliability. In the internal consistency reliability, the score of the individual items is ascertained, and the primary method which is deployed is the Cronbach’s alpha (Gaete et al., 2018). From the quantitative research article, the study embraced the use of a questionnaire as the instrument for collecting data .The sample contained 84 participants who were aged 65 years and above.83.7 percent of the participants were female participants while the rest were male individuals.84.5 percent of the total participants were widowed, and the individuals had attained the various level of education in their early years of studying.64.3 percent of the individuals who participated in the study had a chronic malfunction .Despite the fact that the participants were unequally distributed in terms and levels of education, it is imperative to ascertain that the groups were statistically comparable. The instrument that was embraced in data collection was reliable since the researchers obtained information of large group meaning that the results of the study can be generalized to a large group of people.Additionally, the sample used is large, and it is appropriate for the study.Ideally, the study embraced the use of the individuals aged 65 and above meaning that the sample was appropriate for the study since the research aimed to ascertain the incidence of depression among the elderly individuals and the factors the risk factors that are likely to result to the condition of depression. The method that was embraced in sampling was effective since it was purposive sampling since the individuals embraced in the study were elderly (Kabátová, Uríčkov, and Botíková, 2014). The methods that were deployed in measuring and analyzing data were effective. The research deployed the use of the descriptive statistics, the Spearman correlation’s coefficient, Pearson’s chi-squared method, and the Mann Whitney U test.
Validity is defined as the degree at which the test embraced in measuring data truly measure what it was intended to measure(Jordan and Katy,2018). The type of validity that is depicted in the quantitative research article under evaluation is the external validity. External validity is denoted as the extent to which the results of the given study are generalized to another setting. From the quantitative research article, it can be depicted that the article exhibits external validity since the results obtained from the study can be generalized to a wide population. Construct validity is depicted in the quantitative research under evaluation. Construct validity is used to refer to the degree at which the inferences can be made from the observations to the theoretical framework in which the research is based (Jordan and Katy, 2018). From the quantitative research article under analysis, it is imperative to depict that the results obtained can be inferred to the theoretical framework of the study. According to the results obtained from the study, the risk factors that are likely to trigger depression among the elderly include; chronic illness or pain, loneliness and being widowed (Kabátová, Uríčkov, and Botíková, 2014). The results and findings obtained correspond to the early research that was carried out on the risk factors that contribute to depression among the elderly. For instance, the research that was conducted by Prince et al. (1997) depicted that the elderly individuals who associate with friends and neighbors have a higher chance of developing the condition of depression as compared to the individual who lives without friends and neighbors.
Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Quantitative Research Article
Despite the fact that the sample that was used had a sample whose results can be generalized to a wider population, it is vital to ascertain that the sample was limited in that the participants were chosen from one institution.Additionally, the nature of the tested cohort was unbalanced.However, there are various strengths that underlie the particular study. In the first case, the study embraced the use of questionnaires which served as effective data collection instruments in the study.Ideally, questionnaires aid the researchers in obtaining information from a large number of people.
Clinical Practice Guideline Summary
The clinical practice guideline is used to denote the statements or the recommendations that are deployed in optimizing the care of the patients. The clinical practice guidelines should be in line with the practical experience and evidence. When treating depression among elderly individuals, it is vital to take into consideration the practical clinical guidelines (Showalter, 2012). One of the practice guidelines that should embrace is timely recognition and in-depth managing of the malfunction. Early diagnosis and proper interventions and treatment among the elderly can reduce the prevalence and incidence of elderly individuals with the condition of depression.
The study explores the incidence of depression and the risk factors that trigger the malfunction of depression among elderly individuals. The study concludes by portending that depression is a serious malfunction among the elderly. The risk factors that trigger such an influence include; loneliness, widowed, chronic pain and cognitive malfunctions (Kabátová, Uríčkov, and Botíková, 2014). The research article concludes by portending that special attention should be paid o the elderly individuals with the aforementioned conditions.
What is the prevalence of depression among the elderly and what are the risk factors that trigger the occurrence of depression among elderly individuals? Depression is a serious malfunction for both the public and individuals. Depression has an adverse impact on nursing care and the quality of life of an individual. The condition can be treated, and for the elderly individuals, the condition can be curtailed by providing special attention, care, and treatment to the patients (Kabátová, Uríčkov, and Botíková, 2014). Following the insights gained from the study, the GDs should be deployed in diagnosing the malfunction of depression. It is imperative to ascertain that special treatment and attention is paid to the elderly individuals with chronic pain, the lonely, widowed and those with cognitive malfunctions.Ideally, this is because the results obtained from the study demonstrated that elderly individuals with such a condition are more likely to be depressed than the individuals without the aforementioned conditions.
Gaete, J., Montero-Marin, J., Valenzuela, D., Rojas-Barahona, C. A., Olivares, E., & Araya, R. (2018). Mental health among children and adolescents: Construct validity, reliability, and parent-adolescent agreement on the ‘Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire’ in Chile. PLoS ONE, 13(2), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.01918
Jordan, K. (2018). Validity, Reliability, and the Case for Participant-Centered Research: Reflections on a Multi-Platform Social Media Study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 34(10), 913–921. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2018.1471570
Kabátová,O, Uríčková,A Botíková,A.(2014). Factors Affecting the Incidence of Depression in the Elderly
Showalter, J. S. (2012). The Law of Healthcare Administration (Vol. 6th ed). Chicago, Ill: Health Administration Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=516242&site=ehost-live