GRM597 Final Exam

GRM597 Final Exam



A standardized test __________.



is usually commercially produced and requires a common set of administration and scoring procedures



compares an individual’s test performance to the test performance of others



relies only on multiple-choice questions



is designed and administered by a researcher for a specific research study



What is one criticism of the AB single-subject design?



too short



may be unethical to not apply a facilitative treatment



takes too much time and energy



does not rely on graphical depiction



If you square a correlation coefficient and subtract this number from 1.00, what is the result?



the coefficient of alienation



the coefficient of determination



the amount of variance NOT explained by the variance in each variable



both a and c



Which section of the proposal contains information on the instrumentation used?









implications and limitations



literature review



_________ describes a measure used to compare two different tests with the same group of participants to see how closely correlated the two sets of scores are with each other.



Inter-rater reliability











Test-retest reliability



Parallel-forms reliability



Internal consistency



What is another term for basic research?



real research



pure research



applied research



baseline research



A well-written hypothesis:



creates a unified theme



reflects a theory or body of literature upon which it is based



searches through secondary sources



uses participants in the study who have been used in similar studies



Baylor is concerned that the items on his test really do adequately represent the universe of items from which he chose. Dr. Baylor’s concern is one of ____________.



content validity



predictive validity



concurrent validity



construct validity



How might case studies be superior to other methods of research?



They capitalize on random selection of subjects.



They provide good opportunity for generalization.



They use powerful statistical procedures.



They allow for very detailed examinations of data.



What is the standard metric used in most meta-analytic studies called?



standard deviation



effect size



sampling mean











standard error



Which of the following is NOT a type of survey research?









focus groups or panels






Which of the following threats to external validity happens when subjects receive unintended treatments?



reactive arrangements



multiple treatment interference



experimenter effects



pretest sensitization



One of the keys to successful operation of the central limit theorem is that the sample size must be







less than 20



greater than 30



greater than 40



greater than 50



Which of the following would be considered a continuous variable?



the number answered correctly on a history test



grade level in school









What is one suggested limitation of the single subject design?



significant expense



internal validity



external validity



none of the above



The minimum or maximum value that one would expect the test statistic to yield if the null









hypothesis is true is an example of which of the following?




critical value



F value



F value



sampling mean



Which coefficient reflects the occurrence of perfect reliability?



+ 1.00



+ .50






+ 2.00



What is the most common use of the Internet?



direct research









advertisements through home pages



Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?















Jacob is interested to see if there is a relationship between student absentee rate and national test scores. Which would be the appropriate research method to use?















What is the shortened title which appears at the top of each proposal page called?



an abstract











a running head



an introduction



a reference



If it is not possible to randomize or administer a pretest, what is the best choice of design?



Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)



static group design



nonequivalent control group design



Solomon four-group design



Which of the following is concerned with monitoring estimates of present performance and predictions of future performance?



content validity



criterion validity



construct validity



internal validity



Which correlation coefficient indicates the strongest relationship?















Longitudinal studies examine changes that occur with age; what do cross-sectional studies examine?



immediate treatment effects across groups



long-term treatment effects



age changes



age differences



What can you conclude if the obtained value of a test statistic exceeds the critical value?



The null hypothesis cannot be rejected.



You made an error when calculating the test statistic.



The null hypothesis can be rejected.









Your obtained value is not statistically significant.



Which design is represented below?



Group 1 Treatment Posttest Group 2 No Treatment Posttest




nonequivalent control group design



static group comparison



Solomon two group design



factorial design



Which section of a manuscript discusses the general types of data analyses that were planned and used in the study?















If you read that a study’s finding was significant at the p < .05 level, you could conclude that there is a less than 5% probability that _____________.



the results will translate to real world situations



most researchers in that area would consider the finding to have clinical meaning



the researchers used unreliable measures



the results were due to chance



The experimental design that uses one group, a treatment, and a posttest is called ___________.



one-shot case study design



pretest posttest control group design



Solomon four-group design



one-group pretest posttest design



Which parts of a manuscript have limitations of words as suggested by the text?



title and abstract



title only



abstract only









no limits were suggested by the text



In order to determine the critical value, which two pieces of information are needed?



mean and sample size



degrees of freedom and level of significance



mean and standard deviation



degrees of freedom and variance



Which measure of variability describes the average deviation of each score from the mean?






standard deviation









A research hypothesis ____________.



represents an equality



is represented by Roman symbols



is tested indirectly



is implicit



If the measures associated with a test are said to be consistent, you might conclude the measure is



















What margin spacing should be used in a proposal?



.5 inches



1 inch



1.5 inches



2 inches



What is one step a researcher can take to ensure that ethical principles are maintained?











a computer simulation in which data are constructed and subjected to the effects of various treatments



When the treatment is deemed harmful, try to locate a population that has already been exposed to the treatment.



If the treatment involves risk, be absolutely sure that the risks are clear to the participants and other parties.



all of the above



What does the ethical principle of “sharing benefits” mean?



all participants in the same study should receive an equal share of the benefits or subject payments



all those who belong to the population being studied will share equally from the benefits the study produces



the results of studies must be shared with the public so society may benefit from the increased knowledge



all groups involved in a study should eventually be given an opportunity to receive any treatments that were found to be effective in the study



Which section of a manuscript is usually NOT labeled?















Which of the following statements about qualitative research would be considered false?



It allows the researcher to answer different types of questions than quantitative research does.



It is much less complex than quantitative research because numbers are not extensively involved.



It is often descriptive in nature.



Many different types of sources can be utilized in qualitative research.



What is the best way to begin an interview?



Be direct.



Use a tape-recorder.



Warm-up with some general conversation.



Make the interviewee feel like an important part of the project.









What is the second step in conducting historical research?



evaluating authenticity and accuracy of evidence



formulating a hypothesis



defining a topic or problem



integrating data



What type of test defines a specific level of performance (or mastery) of some content domain?



standardized test



researcher-made test



norm-referenced test



criterion-referenced test



Which source should NOT be cited in a formal literature review?






Review of Educational Research



Handbook of Child Psychology



Journal of Educational Finance



In true experimental designs, what does research attempt to isolate and control?



factors not tested that could be responsible for any effects except the ones being tested



statistics that are used to interpret the results



laboratory conditions to maximize the validity of the experiment



answers of the people in the study



How can descriptive statistics be defined?



describing elements of a distribution



relating the data to a larger population



developing a research question



identical to inferential statistics



The best dependent variable is defined by which of the following characteristics?



independent of any other variable in the same study



sensitive to changes in the treatment











can be manipulated by the researcher



interacts with the independent variable



What is another way the mode can be described?



divides the sample in half



averages the test scores



occurs most frequently



tells how much variability there is in the test scores



What is another name for research that occurs “post hoc”?















What is the major limitation of the quasi-experimental design?



its complexity



its reliance on continuous independent variables



the preassignment to groups



overreliance on randomization



The significance level reported in a research study can be explained by which of the following?



importance of the results to the benefit of society



statistical methods to determine the results of the study



risk associated with not being 100% confident the difference is due to the treatment



importance of the results to the benefit of an individual



What is the most popular search engine?



Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)



ProQuest Dissertations and Theses



Bibliographic Index Plus






What does generalizability refers to?









results that may be applied to different populations in different settings

results that apply only to the sample studied

convenience sampling



using a table of random numbers



The level of significance is similar to which of the following?



a Type I error



a Type II error



a bell curve



the null hypothesis



Which of the following methods provides information about past trends?















Which of the following is NOT a component of a multiple-choice question?



the stem



the root









What is the third step of developing an interview?



selecting a sample



developing the questions



training the interviewers



stating the purpose of the interview



What does the central limit theorem enable researchers to do?



compare means from two independent samples



generalize the results from a sample to a population without knowing the exact nature of the population’s distribution











compute the significance of a relationship between two variables



reduce the possibility that chance accounts for variability in the variable of interest



What is one disadvantage of the Solomon four-group design?



It lacks a control group.



You have to pretest every group.



It is prone to sampling error.



It is time-consuming.



A table of random numbers ____________.



is used in nonprobability sampling methods



is a list of ordered numbers from which the researcher closes his eyes and randomly points until he obtains the desired number for his sample



works well with convenience sampling



cannot be used to create a stratified sample



In a set of scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what raw score is represented by a z score of 2.00?















Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a case study?



It allows close examination of greatly detailed data.



It provides a rich account of what is being studied.



It is a quick method of obtaining information.



Several different types of techniques can be used to obtain data.



A measure of how stable a test is over time is an example of which of the following?



inter-rater reliability



test-retest reliability



parallel forms reliability



internal consistency









Index of +1.00 means that the item ____________.



fails to discriminate



discriminates perfectly



is too easy



is too hard



Which of the following is an example of a closed-ended interview question?



Why did you vote for Gerald Ford?



Did you vote for Gerald Ford?



What were the reasons for your decision?



What were the strengths of Gerald Ford’s presidency?



How can Type II errors be reduced?



decreasing sample size



homogeneous population



increasing sample size



heterogeneous population



Which of the following difficulty levels indicates the item that was the most difficult?















What is one of the limitations of the case-study method?



cause-and-effect links cannot be established



provides more breadth than depth



only one technique is used to gather data



focus is placed upon several individuals at a time



Hannah assigns children to different teaching method groups and tests their math performance after six weeks. This is an example of what type of research?























What is a likely negative consequence of NOT titling your manuscript in a way that clearly reflects its content?



Your manuscript may be rejected.



It may be indexed incorrectly and others searching for a particular subject may miss it.



You may send it to the wrong type of journal.



There are no likely negative consequences.



What measure must be established prior to the treatment variable to measure its effectiveness?






measure of internal validity



measure of external validity



pretest data range



What is the best definition of an institutional review board?



a group of people who make decisions regarding an institution’s human resources



a group of people found in most public institutions and private agencies who render a judgment as to whether experiments carried out in their facilities are free from risk



a group of people who review the literature produced by researchers in their institution in order to keep an accounting of it



a group of people representing many different institutions who meet to review the current literature in their respective fields



Which one of the following is NOT an important criterion for increasing reliability?



eliminate unclear test items



standardize the environmental conditions in which the test is given



moderate the ease and difficulty of the test



use subjective scoring procedures



Which is a subsection found in the method section?






running head












data analysis



What is the least observed ethical principle in conducting research?



sharing benefits



debriefing participants



sharing results



maintaining privacy



What type of threat to internal validity is associated with practice effects?















Which measure of central tendency provides the most information?















What measure would be used to compute the average gender of subjects?












standard deviation



What is the proper order of the following designs if they are to be listed from the one with the least amount of control over variables to the most?



pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest



one-group pretest posttest, quasi-experimental, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group



one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental









quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group



Professor Russel wants to examine the effectiveness of his new reading instruction method for third graders. He locates two third grade classes in the same school. He assesses all students’ current reading ability at the start of the school year. He then has one classroom utilize his new instruction method while the other classroom uses the traditional method. At the end of the school year, Professor Russell assesses reading ability once again and compares group differences. The design of this study exemplifies which of the following?



nonequivalent control group design



static group comparison



Solomon two group design



factorial design



In which of the following instances are tests used as dependent variables?



to assist in selection to a graduate program



to help in placing a child into an appropriate program based on reading level



to screen for a possible learning disability



to determine the effectiveness of a specific type of instruction



When a normal distribution is represented by a histogram, where would most scores fall?



in the extremes of the distribution



in the middle of the distribution



outside of the distribution



on the high end of the distribution



Which of the following has the largest potential to decrease the accuracy of an inference made to a population based on a sample?






a heterogeneous sample



a homogeneous sample



sampling error



Which of the following questions would NOT be considered to be an external criticism?



“Was this document written when claimed?”



“Was this document found where one might expect it?”









“Do the numbers listed in this document seem plausible based on other sources?”



“Is this document truly written by the person it appears to be written by?”



Many researchers devise “sham” treatments for their control groups to undergo, meaning that the control group interacts with researchers in some way that is not thought to impact the dependent variable, or the outcome. This is done to weaken the argument that the ‘treatment group improvement may have occurred in part simply due to the attention this group received from the researchers. These researchers are attempting to control for which of the following?



multiple treatment interference



the Hawthorne effect






experimenter effects



What levels of measurement define most variables in behavioral and social science research?



interval and ratio



nominal and ordinal



nominal and ratio



nominal and interval



The critical value decreases when _____________.



the sample size increases



the sample size decreases



the sample is heterogeneous



the sample is homogeneous



Which interview question is open-ended?



Do you smoke?



Are you married?



How old are you?



How do you feel about tests?



Which of the following best describes independent variables?



not manipulated by the experimenter



manipulated to assess the effect of the treatment



unrelated to the treatment









not necessary



When we calculate reliability, we know the observed score. What are the two unknown components of the reliability equation?



method and error scores



means and standard deviations



test-retest and inter-rater scores



true and error scores



Which is the most comprehensive guide to general literature?



The New York Times Index



The Reader’s Guide, Full Text Mega Edition



Statistical Abstract of the United States



Review of Educational Research



Which of the following statements regarding correlational research is false?



Correlational research describes the linear relationship between two or more variables.



Correlational research is a very effective means of establishing casual relationships.



Correlational research is a type of descriptive research.



Correlational research can help to “paint a broad picture” of the current state of some phenomenon.



If, while using the nonequivalent control group design, the researcher discovers that groups differ on the pretest measure, one technique which can be used to statistically equalize the groups on the pretest is ____________.



factor analysis



Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)



parallel forms pretesting



Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)



What is another term for accuracy?









internal criticism












Inter-rater reliability measures consistency ___________.



over time



from form to form



across different tests



from rater to rater



There will be no relationship between children’s time in day care and later academic achievement. This is an example of which of the following?



a research hypothesis



a factorial design



a correlational hypothesis



a null hypothesis



When is a stratified sample an appropriate sampling technique?



specific characteristics of the population are of no concern



individuals in a population are not equal



each member must have an equal chance of being selected



you have a small population



The term nonequivalent in “nonequivalent control group design” refers to the nonequivalence of







sample size



pretesting procedures



groups before the experiment begins



groups after the experiment has ended



What is one of the advantages of using online search services?



you are not likely to miss very much



this is an outdated method



it is stated in a declarative form



you can enter the data for any one reference using a standard form



If Dr. Robinson rejects the null hypothesis after observing a test statistic which exceeds the critical value at the .05 level, there is __________.









a 95% chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

a 5% chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

a 5% chance that the null hypothesis is actually false

no chance that the null hypothesis is actually true


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