**GRM597 Final Exam**

A standardized test __________.

is usually commercially produced and requires a common set of administration and scoring procedures

compares an individual’s test performance to the test performance of others

relies only on multiple-choice questions

is designed and administered by a researcher for a specific research study

What is one criticism of the AB single-subject design?

too short

may be unethical to not apply a facilitative treatment

takes too much time and energy

does not rely on graphical depiction

If you square a correlation coefficient and subtract this number from 1.00, what is the result?

the coefficient of alienation

the coefficient of determination

the amount of variance NOT explained by the variance in each variable

both a and c

Which section of the proposal contains information on the instrumentation used?

introduction

method

implications and limitations

literature review

_________ describes a measure used to compare two different tests with the same group of participants to see how closely correlated the two sets of scores are with each other.

Inter-rater reliability

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Test-retest reliability

Parallel-forms reliability

Internal consistency

What is another term for basic research?

real research

pure research

applied research

baseline research

A well-written hypothesis:

creates a unified theme

reflects a theory or body of literature upon which it is based

searches through secondary sources

uses participants in the study who have been used in similar studies

Baylor is concerned that the items on his test really do adequately represent the universe of items from which he chose. Dr. Baylor’s concern is one of ____________.

content validity

predictive validity

concurrent validity

construct validity

How might case studies be superior to other methods of research?

They capitalize on random selection of subjects.

They provide good opportunity for generalization.

They use powerful statistical procedures.

They allow for very detailed examinations of data.

What is the standard metric used in most meta-analytic studies called?

standard deviation

effect size

sampling mean

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standard error

Which of the following is NOT a type of survey research?

interview

observation

focus groups or panels

questionnaires

Which of the following threats to external validity happens when subjects receive unintended treatments?

reactive arrangements

multiple treatment interference

experimenter effects

pretest sensitization

One of the keys to successful operation of the central limit theorem is that the sample size must be

___________.

less than 20

greater than 30

greater than 40

greater than 50

Which of the following would be considered a continuous variable?

the number answered correctly on a history test

grade level in school

gender

length

What is one suggested limitation of the single subject design?

significant expense

internal validity

external validity

none of the above

The minimum or maximum value that one would expect the test statistic to yield if the null

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hypothesis is true is an example of which of the following?

critical value

F value

F value

sampling mean

Which coefficient reflects the occurrence of perfect reliability?

+ 1.00

+ .50

+.100

+ 2.00

What is the most common use of the Internet?

direct research

V

advertisements through home pages

Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?

introduction

methods

results

discussion

Jacob is interested to see if there is a relationship between student absentee rate and national test scores. Which would be the appropriate research method to use?

historical

correlational

descriptive

longitudinal

What is the shortened title which appears at the top of each proposal page called?

an abstract

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a running head

an introduction

a reference

If it is not possible to randomize or administer a pretest, what is the best choice of design?

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

static group design

nonequivalent control group design

Solomon four-group design

Which of the following is concerned with monitoring estimates of present performance and predictions of future performance?

content validity

criterion validity

construct validity

internal validity

Which correlation coefficient indicates the strongest relationship?

00

+0.50

-0.70

+0.60

Longitudinal studies examine changes that occur with age; what do cross-sectional studies examine?

immediate treatment effects across groups

long-term treatment effects

age changes

age differences

What can you conclude if the obtained value of a test statistic exceeds the critical value?

The null hypothesis cannot be rejected.

You made an error when calculating the test statistic.

The null hypothesis can be rejected.

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Your obtained value is not statistically significant.

Which design is represented below?

Group 1 Treatment Posttest Group 2 No Treatment Posttest

nonequivalent control group design

static group comparison

Solomon two group design

factorial design

Which section of a manuscript discusses the general types of data analyses that were planned and used in the study?

introduction

abstract

results

method

If you read that a study’s finding was significant at the p < .05 level, you could conclude that there is a less than 5% probability that _____________.

the results will translate to real world situations

most researchers in that area would consider the finding to have clinical meaning

the researchers used unreliable measures

the results were due to chance

The experimental design that uses one group, a treatment, and a posttest is called ___________.

one-shot case study design

pretest posttest control group design

Solomon four-group design

one-group pretest posttest design

Which parts of a manuscript have limitations of words as suggested by the text?

title and abstract

title only

abstract only

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no limits were suggested by the text

In order to determine the critical value, which two pieces of information are needed?

mean and sample size

degrees of freedom and level of significance

mean and standard deviation

degrees of freedom and variance

Which measure of variability describes the average deviation of each score from the mean?

range

standard deviation

mode

mean

A research hypothesis ____________.

represents an equality

is represented by Roman symbols

is tested indirectly

is implicit

If the measures associated with a test are said to be consistent, you might conclude the measure is

__________.

standard

valid

reliable

concurrent

What margin spacing should be used in a proposal?

.5 inches

1 inch

1.5 inches

2 inches

What is one step a researcher can take to ensure that ethical principles are maintained?

7

a computer simulation in which data are constructed and subjected to the effects of various treatments

When the treatment is deemed harmful, try to locate a population that has already been exposed to the treatment.

If the treatment involves risk, be absolutely sure that the risks are clear to the participants and other parties.

all of the above

What does the ethical principle of “sharing benefits” mean?

all participants in the same study should receive an equal share of the benefits or subject payments

all those who belong to the population being studied will share equally from the benefits the study produces

the results of studies must be shared with the public so society may benefit from the increased knowledge

all groups involved in a study should eventually be given an opportunity to receive any treatments that were found to be effective in the study

Which section of a manuscript is usually NOT labeled?

discussion

methods

results

introduction

Which of the following statements about qualitative research would be considered false?

It allows the researcher to answer different types of questions than quantitative research does.

It is much less complex than quantitative research because numbers are not extensively involved.

It is often descriptive in nature.

Many different types of sources can be utilized in qualitative research.

What is the best way to begin an interview?

Be direct.

Use a tape-recorder.

Warm-up with some general conversation.

Make the interviewee feel like an important part of the project.

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What is the second step in conducting historical research?

evaluating authenticity and accuracy of evidence

formulating a hypothesis

defining a topic or problem

integrating data

What type of test defines a specific level of performance (or mastery) of some content domain?

standardized test

researcher-made test

norm-referenced test

criterion-referenced test

Which source should NOT be cited in a formal literature review?

Newsweek

Review of Educational Research

Handbook of Child Psychology

Journal of Educational Finance

In true experimental designs, what does research attempt to isolate and control?

factors not tested that could be responsible for any effects except the ones being tested

statistics that are used to interpret the results

laboratory conditions to maximize the validity of the experiment

answers of the people in the study

How can descriptive statistics be defined?

describing elements of a distribution

relating the data to a larger population

developing a research question

identical to inferential statistics

The best dependent variable is defined by which of the following characteristics?

independent of any other variable in the same study

sensitive to changes in the treatment

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can be manipulated by the researcher

interacts with the independent variable

What is another way the mode can be described?

divides the sample in half

averages the test scores

occurs most frequently

tells how much variability there is in the test scores

What is another name for research that occurs “post hoc”?

experimental

correlational

quasi-experimental

historical

What is the major limitation of the quasi-experimental design?

its complexity

its reliance on continuous independent variables

the preassignment to groups

overreliance on randomization

The significance level reported in a research study can be explained by which of the following?

importance of the results to the benefit of society

statistical methods to determine the results of the study

risk associated with not being 100% confident the difference is due to the treatment

importance of the results to the benefit of an individual

What is the most popular search engine?

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Bibliographic Index Plus

What does generalizability refers to?

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results that may be applied to different populations in different settings

results that apply only to the sample studied

convenience sampling

using a table of random numbers

The level of significance is similar to which of the following?

a Type I error

a Type II error

a bell curve

the null hypothesis

Which of the following methods provides information about past trends?

Historical

correlational

experimental

descriptive

Which of the following is NOT a component of a multiple-choice question?

the stem

the root

distracters

alternatives

What is the third step of developing an interview?

selecting a sample

developing the questions

training the interviewers

stating the purpose of the interview

What does the central limit theorem enable researchers to do?

compare means from two independent samples

generalize the results from a sample to a population without knowing the exact nature of the population’s distribution

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compute the significance of a relationship between two variables

reduce the possibility that chance accounts for variability in the variable of interest

What is one disadvantage of the Solomon four-group design?

It lacks a control group.

You have to pretest every group.

It is prone to sampling error.

It is time-consuming.

A table of random numbers ____________.

is used in nonprobability sampling methods

is a list of ordered numbers from which the researcher closes his eyes and randomly points until he obtains the desired number for his sample

works well with convenience sampling

cannot be used to create a stratified sample

In a set of scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what raw score is represented by a z score of 2.00?

115

130

100

70

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a case study?

It allows close examination of greatly detailed data.

It provides a rich account of what is being studied.

It is a quick method of obtaining information.

Several different types of techniques can be used to obtain data.

A measure of how stable a test is over time is an example of which of the following?

inter-rater reliability

test-retest reliability

parallel forms reliability

internal consistency

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Index of +1.00 means that the item ____________.

fails to discriminate

discriminates perfectly

is too easy

is too hard

Which of the following is an example of a closed-ended interview question?

Why did you vote for Gerald Ford?

Did you vote for Gerald Ford?

What were the reasons for your decision?

What were the strengths of Gerald Ford’s presidency?

How can Type II errors be reduced?

decreasing sample size

homogeneous population

increasing sample size

heterogeneous population

Which of the following difficulty levels indicates the item that was the most difficult?

40

30

05

50

What is one of the limitations of the case-study method?

cause-and-effect links cannot be established

provides more breadth than depth

only one technique is used to gather data

focus is placed upon several individuals at a time

Hannah assigns children to different teaching method groups and tests their math performance after six weeks. This is an example of what type of research?

descriptive

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historical

experimental

uncontrolled

What is a likely negative consequence of NOT titling your manuscript in a way that clearly reflects its content?

Your manuscript may be rejected.

It may be indexed incorrectly and others searching for a particular subject may miss it.

You may send it to the wrong type of journal.

There are no likely negative consequences.

What measure must be established prior to the treatment variable to measure its effectiveness?

baseline

measure of internal validity

measure of external validity

pretest data range

What is the best definition of an institutional review board?

a group of people who make decisions regarding an institution’s human resources

a group of people found in most public institutions and private agencies who render a judgment as to whether experiments carried out in their facilities are free from risk

a group of people who review the literature produced by researchers in their institution in order to keep an accounting of it

a group of people representing many different institutions who meet to review the current literature in their respective fields

Which one of the following is NOT an important criterion for increasing reliability?

eliminate unclear test items

standardize the environmental conditions in which the test is given

moderate the ease and difficulty of the test

use subjective scoring procedures

Which is a subsection found in the method section?

introduction

running head

14

results

data analysis

What is the least observed ethical principle in conducting research?

sharing benefits

debriefing participants

sharing results

maintaining privacy

What type of threat to internal validity is associated with practice effects?

maturation

regression

testing

instrumentation

Which measure of central tendency provides the most information?

median

mean

midpoint

mode

What measure would be used to compute the average gender of subjects?

mean

mode

median

standard deviation

What is the proper order of the following designs if they are to be listed from the one with the least amount of control over variables to the most?

pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest

one-group pretest posttest, quasi-experimental, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group

one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental

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quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group

Professor Russel wants to examine the effectiveness of his new reading instruction method for third graders. He locates two third grade classes in the same school. He assesses all students’ current reading ability at the start of the school year. He then has one classroom utilize his new instruction method while the other classroom uses the traditional method. At the end of the school year, Professor Russell assesses reading ability once again and compares group differences. The design of this study exemplifies which of the following?

nonequivalent control group design

static group comparison

Solomon two group design

factorial design

In which of the following instances are tests used as dependent variables?

to assist in selection to a graduate program

to help in placing a child into an appropriate program based on reading level

to screen for a possible learning disability

to determine the effectiveness of a specific type of instruction

When a normal distribution is represented by a histogram, where would most scores fall?

in the extremes of the distribution

in the middle of the distribution

outside of the distribution

on the high end of the distribution

Which of the following has the largest potential to decrease the accuracy of an inference made to a population based on a sample?

variance

a heterogeneous sample

a homogeneous sample

sampling error

Which of the following questions would NOT be considered to be an external criticism?

“Was this document written when claimed?”

“Was this document found where one might expect it?”

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“Do the numbers listed in this document seem plausible based on other sources?”

“Is this document truly written by the person it appears to be written by?”

Many researchers devise “sham” treatments for their control groups to undergo, meaning that the control group interacts with researchers in some way that is not thought to impact the dependent variable, or the outcome. This is done to weaken the argument that the ‘treatment group improvement may have occurred in part simply due to the attention this group received from the researchers. These researchers are attempting to control for which of the following?

multiple treatment interference

the Hawthorne effect

selection

experimenter effects

What levels of measurement define most variables in behavioral and social science research?

interval and ratio

nominal and ordinal

nominal and ratio

nominal and interval

The critical value decreases when _____________.

the sample size increases

the sample size decreases

the sample is heterogeneous

the sample is homogeneous

Which interview question is open-ended?

Do you smoke?

Are you married?

How old are you?

How do you feel about tests?

Which of the following best describes independent variables?

not manipulated by the experimenter

manipulated to assess the effect of the treatment

unrelated to the treatment

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not necessary

When we calculate reliability, we know the observed score. What are the two unknown components of the reliability equation?

method and error scores

means and standard deviations

test-retest and inter-rater scores

true and error scores

Which is the most comprehensive guide to general literature?

The New York Times Index

The Reader’s Guide, Full Text Mega Edition

Statistical Abstract of the United States

Review of Educational Research

Which of the following statements regarding correlational research is false?

Correlational research describes the linear relationship between two or more variables.

Correlational research is a very effective means of establishing casual relationships.

Correlational research is a type of descriptive research.

Correlational research can help to “paint a broad picture” of the current state of some phenomenon.

If, while using the nonequivalent control group design, the researcher discovers that groups differ on the pretest measure, one technique which can be used to statistically equalize the groups on the pretest is ____________.

factor analysis

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

parallel forms pretesting

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

What is another term for accuracy?

authenticity

secondary

internal criticism

validity

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Inter-rater reliability measures consistency ___________.

over time

from form to form

across different tests

from rater to rater

There will be no relationship between children’s time in day care and later academic achievement. This is an example of which of the following?

a research hypothesis

a factorial design

a correlational hypothesis

a null hypothesis

When is a stratified sample an appropriate sampling technique?

specific characteristics of the population are of no concern

individuals in a population are not equal

each member must have an equal chance of being selected

you have a small population

The term nonequivalent in “nonequivalent control group design” refers to the nonequivalence of

____________.

sample size

pretesting procedures

groups before the experiment begins

groups after the experiment has ended

What is one of the advantages of using online search services?

you are not likely to miss very much

this is an outdated method

it is stated in a declarative form

you can enter the data for any one reference using a standard form

If Dr. Robinson rejects the null hypothesis after observing a test statistic which exceeds the critical value at the .05 level, there is __________.

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a 95% chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

a 5% chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

a 5% chance that the null hypothesis is actually false

no chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

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