Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics


Food and Drugs Administration is an organization that was developed to approve consumption of various drugs for different types of illnesses. Before a given drug can be allowed to be used for treatment the drug must be analyzed by this body and after that the company can be allowed to distribute the medicine for sale. One of the medicines that have been approved by FDA is Onzetra which is a drug used for treating migraines, (Wilkes and Barton-Burke, 2016). The medicine is highly used in our society and a clear understanding of how it works would be of much help to us.  Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology which explains the process through which medicines are transported and become of use to our body through absorption.  Pharmacodynamics on the other hand is a branch is pharmacology which explains the effects of drugs and the impacts they have in our bodies.




Onzentra Pharmacokinetics



This type of medicine is inhaled as a powder and the powdered composition is delivered to the nasal cavity where absorption is to take place. After inhaling the powder and delivering it into the nasal cavity the patient then exhales and in this process the soft palates are closed. The nasal cavity is sealed off and the small and narrow nasal vessels open and expand to transport the medicine into the deeper nasal cavity. It is in this region that the absorption process takes place and the blood is used to transport and distributed to parts of the head which are affected by the migraine, (In Alex, In Harris and In Smith, 2015). During this process, one of the nostrils closes and the other is used to exhale the air from within. When the soft palates close, this is important because it helps by preventing swallowing of the medicine and in the end the medicine is not absorbed in the intestine.




Onzetra pharmacodynamics




The process through which this medicine works in the body is known as pharmacodynamics. When Onzetra is delivered in the nasal cavity it is absorbed in the blood as sumatriptan and this component bonds with the human receptors and in this case these receptors are known as cloned 5-HT1B/1D. Sumatriptan leads to a therapeutic impact in the human blood especially blood flowing in the head where migraines are taking place and the relief or the impact of this action is felt in the 5-HT1B/1D receptors. These receptors are in the blood vessels which are known as intracranial vessels. The other effect is felt in the sensory nerves mainly in the trigeminal system and this happens after the cranial vessels have constricted leading to the release of neuropeptide which is relieves the severe headache, (In Alex, In Harris and In Smith, 2015).




Adverse effects based on age, pregnancy or lactation



For age groups the drug is not limited to a certain age group but it is not advisable for young people or the children. The medicine is highly encouraged for the mature men from the age of 25 and above and for the elderly. The medicine is okay to use but strict precautions against the use of this medicine for small children. Though sumatriptan has not been tested for the right age which it should be consumed the doctors encourage that their instructions matter most because the medicine can lead to some negative side effects.


For pregnant women, the use of this medicine in most cases can lead to high blood pressure which is a risky condition when pregnant. The other impact is rhinitis allergies which could lead to problems to the expectant mother. The problems extend to the child where new born babies could have skeleton related problems which are abnormalities.


For lactating mothers there are precautions against the use of this medicine. The medicine has a negative effect in children and lactating mothers are advised to take around 8 to 12 hours before breastfeeding. Exposure of the medicine to the young children would have negative side effects, (Wilkes and Barton-Burke, 2016). To avoid putting the children at risk the mothers should be cautious when taking this medicine. It could lead to rhinorrhea where the child fails to breathe properly due to excess accumulation of mucus. This would be a risky condition for the child especially those children who can’t express themselves when having a problem.





In Alex, A. A., In Harris, C. J., & In Smith, D. A. (2015). Attrition in the pharmaceutical industry: Reasons, implications, and pathways forward.


Wilkes, G. M., & Barton-Burke, M. (2016). 2016 Oncology nursing drug handbook. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning



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