Statistics Concepts and Descriptive Measures

Statistics Concepts and Descriptive Measures


Qualitative Or Quantitative Data



For each column, the data given is quantitative data. Quantitative data means numerical facts and figures. It is used for statistical analysis, for example, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, range, etc. With the help of quantitative data, the analysis becomes very easy by the use of statistical software like SPSS. The quantitative data can be collected with the help of primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources mean when the data is collected for the first time with the help of surveys, interviews, questionnaires, etc. Secondary data means the second-hand data in the form of books, magazines, journal, internet, etc. In the consumer food data set, we are given annual food spending, annual household income, non-mortgage household debt, region, and location, in numerical figures.




Level Of Measurement In Each Column



The level of measurement for annual food spending, annual household income, and non-mortgage household debt is an interval scale. The level of measurement for region and location is a nominal scale. Interval scale is utilized for classification as well as the ordering of the measurement. The difference in each interval of the scale is equal. For example, an interval level of students’ scores between 80 and 90 is the same as the interval level score between 50 and 60. A nominal scale classifies the data for example, 1 is for male and 2 is for female. (Data Levels of Measurement, n.d.)




Mean And Median



Mean means the average of all the values. It can be calculated with the help of Arithmetic mean which means the sum of all the values of the data set is divided by the total number of values. For instance, the marks scored in three different subjects by the student are 60, 70 and 80. To find the mean, add all the values which are equal to 210, and then divide by 3. The mean of the three values is 70. Median is the central value that divides the data set into equal parts.




            Annual Food Spending ($)     Annual Household Income ($)           Non mortgage household debt ($)            Region Location 

Mean   8966.07           55552.39         15604.16         2.45     1.4

Median            8932    54957.47         16100.25         2          1



Standard Deviation And Range



Standard deviation this is a measure of dispersion that helps to calculate the sum of the square root of the deviations from the mean. It tells how the values are varied from one another. The range is another measure of dispersion. It can be calculated by subtracting the lowest value from the highest value. For example, if the five values are 23, 87, 65, 91, and 62. The highest value is 91 and the lowest value is 23. The range is obtained by deducting 23 from 91, which is 68. (Measures of variability, n.d.)




            Annual Food Spending ($)     Annual Household Income ($)           Non mortgage household debt ($)            Region Location 

Standard deviation     3125.01           14661.36         8583.54           1.19     0.49

Maximum        17740  96132  36374  4          2

Minimum         2587    21647  0          1          1

Range  15153  74486  36374  3          1




Data Levels of Measurement. (n.d.).


Measures of variability. (n.d.).



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